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In they met Dr. This dream was to develop a system of notation that would be specifically fit to describe, analyse and even reproduce Indian music with all its fine nuances and inflections. This system has been refined over the decades as computers became faster and pitch perception models more advanced.
The Apple system was still in use in the early s when Suvarnalata Rao, the other author of this website, generated graphs for her PhD work on intonation and cognition of rasa In the s Wim van der Meer ported the whole implementation to the original Macintosh, which had a built-in Hook up with girl in Maragheh converter and enough processing power to use a pitch perception model developed at the University of Leiden and implemented in their LVS software that was running on microVax computers.
The translations of Adwar into Turkish that have survived are also attributed to him. His music flourished in the Ottoman empire for more than five centuries. We know little about his childhood. His place of birth, Maraghah, in Azerbaijan, was the capital of Halako Khan a century before his birth. Iranian Il-khani a branch of the Mongol Empire came to power after the collapse of the Il-khanian at the end of the thirteenth century.
They ruled for a century over Azerbaijan, Kurdestan, and parts of Iraq. They were Shiite, and their capital was Baghdad and patronized art, music and poetry. Abdolqader accompanied him in Tabriz, his capital. Among them, musicians like Qutb al-din Naie, Habibollah Udi, and Abdolmomen Gouyendah vocalist were hanged on the gallows. Abdolqader escaped to Baghdad to the court of Sultan Ahmad Jalayer. Inwhen Tamore was returning from his victorious battle of Sham and Syria, he once again conquered Baghdad and ordered a massacre of the people.
Abdolqader was captured, and while he was sentenced to death he cried and chanted Quran in his best voice, as Khonde Mir, a Persian historian, indicates. Tamore heard Abdolqader voice Hook up with girl in Maragheh pardoned him from death. After the death of Tamore inAbdolqader traveled to Borrsse, the capital of the Othoman empire. It is not clear how long he stayed in that country. However, this contradicts the existence of an original copy in the library of Mashhad written by Abdolqader himself in AH Nothing in this original indicates that Abdolqader had dedicated this book to Sultan Morad the Second.
He died as result of epidemic pestilence in AH Three of his books are available in Persian: The usage of the old expressions, especially those of Arabic and Greek, make it uncomfortable for contemporary readers.
However, he challenges Qutb Prostitute in Baths Shirazi owner of Dorratottajaccusing him of being a theorist and not a musician. The main aspects of his discussion are presented below. This monochord has been divided into eight equal parts. If we divide this monochord into three parts, we come to the first Zolkhams pentachord.
If we divide it into Wheeling wife pussy in Villa Hayes, we come to the Zelkoll octave. Based on the same calculation, Abdolqader finds the rest of the pitches. The intervals are whole tones, semitones and microtones. The names of the pitches by their abjd in the first octave are:. In Turkish classical music the terms are used, but the intervals do not exactly corresponded to those referenced by Abdolqader.
For the tunning system, he divides the instruments based on the number of strings ranging from two to five strings. For the two stringed instrument Zowlwatareinthe conventional tunning is that the 4th finger khinsir on Hook up with girl in Maragheh upper string should create a sound as clear as the lower free string. The tuning for this instrument is that the third of the upper string should be equal to the lower free string. Therefore, the relation of all five strings is Router validating identity netgear on the perfect fourth.
These cycles are classified as first and Hook up with girl in Maragheh class modes. Based on their importance they are: According to the Arabs, he says, the main maqam-s are twelve. Geographically, they cover from China to Turkey and most of the Islamic lands of that time. Cohrdophones and aerophones are of two kinds: For instance, among the chordophones, kamancheh needs a bow and ud needs a plectrum. In aerophones, he mentions sefid nay and sornay as independent, and chepcheq panpipe and arghanun as dependent instruments.
He defines the instrument according to their tuning systems. More than any other Adult fun in Kok Yangak, he mentions twenty-eight chordophones. He describes a tanbur with two strings which were tuned a fourth 3: This instrument has ten frets and produced a scale of one octave, proceeding by limma 90 centslimma 90 centsand comma 24 cents.
He describes a tanbur of three strings which has seven frets and an ambitus of few notes more than one octave. The range of this instrument is double octave plus a limma 90 cents.
Both were played with a plectrum. They are tuned in perfect fourth. Tarab- al fath was a kind of ud with five or six single strings. It was tuned like ud-kamil. Shashtar is introduced in three different kinds: Among the bowed instrument majrurathe mentions tanbur-e shervani and tanbur-e turkey, and nay-tanbur. Another bowed instruments are kamanche and gheczak. The sound-box of kamanche is made either from coconut shell or from wood.
Those which are made from wood and apply silk for their strings sound better. Chang has twenty-four single strings and sometimes thirty-five. The sound-box was covered by skin, on which a bridge stood to support the strings which passes over it. They are tuned in baqiah half tune. Qanun with its trigonal their recent form is trapezoidal shape had the same range as the chang and akri.
Abdulqader does not mention the number of the strings, but he states that they were strung in threes. The Saz-e dulab is described as a mechanical instrument in the shape of a drum. The free strings inside were contacted with a wheel resonator. The keys were outside, and by turning a handle Hook up with girl in Maragheh raised and lowered the pitches when the strings were touched [this instrument reminds one of a hurdy-gurdy].
Among the instruments that he mentions, a Hook up with girl in Maragheh belong to Khutay, the eastern part of China. One is the shederghu, a long-necked stringed instrument, where half of the belly of the sound box covered with skin or wood. It has four strings, three tuned like the ud and the fourth in conventional tuning. Abdulaqader indicates that the people of Khutay played the Iranian modes of Hook up with girl in Maragheh, nava and busalik on this instrument. Beside, yatughan, a plucked instrument, the pipa was also played by the people of Khutay.
It has four strings, the interval of the first and second was tuned in fourth. Similar tuning applied between the third and fourth string. Based on the recent researches on archeological material of Chines Turkestan bas-relief, terra cottaphilology, literature and historical texts, Kishibe concludes that the origin of the pipa was Iran. The shahrud is described as an arch-lute shaped with the twice length of the ud. It was mounted with five double strings. This instrument or the tuning system for this instrument was invented by Ibn ahwas [Abu Hafz-e Sughadi].
The complete list of chordophones are as followings:. They are of two kinds: Nay-e sefid has seven holes in the Hook up with girl in Maragheh and one in the back.
By the force of the air stream one can produce two octaves zil kul-e marratain. The length of the nay depended on the musician. Its length is generally between five to eight fist-hands. The smallest are used by children. The contemporary Iranian classical nay has five holes in the front and one in the back. The tones of the Surna is less clear than nay-e sefid, but it can create a range of an octave plus a pentachord. The nay-e chavoor is more common among the Turks, who play more in the mode of now Prostitute in Terni bayati and nava.
The progression into different modes other than these is not common. It is about two meters gazand whatever is longer it called burghu. If the lower part turns back upon itself, it is known as karnay. The musiqar has different tubes and Hook up with girl in Maragheh lengths. The shorter produces higher pitch and the longer produces shorter pitch. Chebcheq is called the musiqar of Khutay people.
Both are like panpipes. The nay-s are glued together, and their lengths are varied. Abdulqader Hook up with girl in Maragheh to the arghanun as an European farang instrument. He considered them as a reed-pipes.
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