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When counseling women experiencing intimate partner violence IPVhealthcare providers can benefit from understanding the factors contributing to a women's motivation to change her situation. We wished to examine the various factors and situations associated with turning points and change seeking in the IPV situation.

The turning points women identified fell into 5 major themes: Women experiencing IPV can identify specific factors and events constituting turning points or catalyst to change in their IPV situation. When counseling women experiencing Slagel xxx, health providers can incorporate understanding of turning points to motivate women to move forward in their process of changing their IPV situation.

Several researchers have developed or adopted health behavioral models to assist Slagel xxx explaining the process of moving toward safety among women experiencing IPV. External factors such as interactions with healthcare providers may either impede or facilitate an individual's movement toward changing her IPV situation.

The Psychosocial Readiness Model for intimate partner violence victims. For counselors and other health providers hoping to help women experiencing IPV, understanding the Slagel xxx that contribute to a woman's motivation for change would enhance counseling approaches. Several studies examining the naturalistic process of women's engagement in and response to IPV have described the concept of turning points. In Women seeking sex in Ott study, we wished specifically to examine the various Slagel xxx and situations associated with turning points and the beginning of change seeking in the IPV situation.

Improved understanding of what contributes to motivation to seek change Slagel xxx IPV situations would provide helpful insight for counselors and counseling interventions. We chose a qualitative approach to encourage women to share their perspectives and experiences in Slagel xxx own words without limitation or Slagel xxx. Qualitative research is used to elucidate social, emotional, and interpersonal dynamics associated with personal Slagel xxx and provides a deeper understanding of participants' perspectives than traditional quantitative methods.

The data from this study came from two previous studies. Both studies used a qualitative design. Individual qualitative interviews allowed us to examine temporal and contextual elements that influenced the processes and experiences of individual survivors of IPV.

To this end, we conducted semistructured individual interviews with women who had experienced IPV to understand their process of change in their IPV relationship and whether they identified specific turning points that triggered permanent changes in their view of or behavior in response to an abusive intimate relationship.

The data regarding turning points was obtained from 7 focus groups and 20 semistructured individual interviews with women who had a history of IPV—a total of 61 participants. For the focus groups, we collaborated with Slagel xxx advocates to recruit women who were attending group counseling for IPV. We chose this population to benefit from the familiarity that the women possessed in discussing their IPV experiences within a group setting, as well as from the dynamic and interactive dialogue among participants.

Seven focus groups were conducted, with 4 to 9 participants in each group. Five groups were in English and two were in Spanish with a Spanish-speaking moderator and notetaker. Two of the focus groups were conducted in support groups with women who were living in women's shelters; four groups were comprised of women not living in shelters; and one was a mix of sheltered and nonsheltered women.

A trained moderator conducted Slagel xxx focus group, while an observer took notes to track transitions in speakers and any nonverbal communication. The Slagel xxx made an effort to allow an open, spontaneous discussion and flow of ideas and issues, while occasionally redirecting Slagel xxx group when they strayed from the topic. The semistructured interviews were conducted by trained research staff. In each interview, we asked the women to describe their IPV experience chronologically as best they could; starting with how the relationship began, then describing when they first became aware that there was a problem.

We encouraged the women to share their narrative in Slagel xxx open and spontaneous manner with occasional prompts and followup questions to clarify details of their experience. Prostitute in Melbourne focus group discussions and semistructured interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The Spanish-speaking focus groups were first transcribed in Spanish, and then two translators independently translated the Spanish transcripts into English.

Differences in translation were either discussed between the translators Slagel xxx arbitrated by a third Spanish translator. The interviews lasted between 30 to 90 minutes.

Moderators and interviewers reviewed each transcript to ensure that the Slagel xxx reflected their recollection of the discussion or narrative. For this research Slagel xxx, we used a grounded theory approach assigning interpretive codes to each portion of the transcript in an iterative fashion rather than relying on a pre-established codebook. This coding process was performed on the full transcripts for all Slagel xxx focus groups and 20 interviews. No discrepancies emerged during this process.

The final codes and categories were then grouped into themes. Additional steps to ensure consistency of our findings included review of analysis among the larger study group, review of Slagel xxx among a group of IPV researchers, and feedback sessions with Slagel xxx victims-advocates. These reviewers found good corroboration with our themes, based on their own experience and expertise. Forty-one women participated Slagel xxx the focus groups.

Their characteristics are described in Table 1. Among the focus group Slagel xxx, 29 had experienced physical violence from their Slagel xxx within the past year and 19 during the past 3 months. Five were still living with their abusive partner at the time of the focus group. The characteristics of 20 participants in the semistructured interviews are described in Table 2. In addition to physical violence, all 20 had also experienced emotional abuse, and 11 had suffered sexual violence from an intimate partner in their lifetime.

Seven of the 20 participants were living with the abuser, and 14 described being afraid of a current or past partner at the time of the interview. The women described that when they feared that the violence was affecting other individuals, they recognized a need to view the IPV differently—generally with less acceptance and fatalism—and began to contemplate attempting to change their situation.

This was particularly Slagel xxx case when they recognized a threat to their children. At that point, I knew that Slagel xxx wasn't going to allow him to continue to hurt her emotionally…. I'm sorry, you can do whatever you want to me to a point, but don't Slagel xxx doing this to my daughter and to the kids.

Another woman shared a similar experience: When he wasn't satisfied hitting me, he started hitting my kids. And I didn't like that. Not to my kids. This concern for the violence affecting others also applied to other family members and unborn children. One woman described how she Slagel xxx her thinking about her relationship when she became pregnant.

Another factor that led to a shift in how women viewed their IPV situation and desire to seek help was escalation in either the severity or Slagel xxx of degradation Slagel xxx the abuse. Slagel xxx was Xxx fucking in Berekum the case when they experienced violence to a degree that their lives were threatened.

Recognizing that they could indeed be killed by their abuser forced them to re-evaluate the danger Slagel xxx their situation and the risks of remaining in the relationship. One woman described that when her partner's abuse began to involve sexual violence, she made her decision that she was no longer going to tolerate the situation and took action to change Slagel xxx. So after he went to sleep, I snuck out of the house Slagel xxx grabbed that and left.

And I haven't been back since. Another factor that helped women view their situations differently and consider change was the recognition that they had support Slagel xxx others who were interested in helping them. The women described support from other people which made them aware that alternatives to their violent situation existed and that there might be people willing to help Slagel xxx take steps to explore those options and increase their safety.

One Slagel xxx said that when patrons at a local bar she and her abuser frequented defended and protected her from his attacks, she began to realize that she was not as isolated Slagel xxx she had previously thought: They would Slagel xxx on him, or pull him up off me. We were scared, yes. But little by little we found the way to the light, to a new life.

Others described how interactions Slagel xxx healthcare providers—which included physicians, nurses, social workers, and behavioral health counselors—changed how they viewed themselves, the violence, and their relationship with their abuser.

They described how when a health provider expressed concern and support, they would feel a sense of Slagel xxx and Slagel xxx to recognize that they deserved and could strive for safety Slagel xxx a better situation. As one women mentioned: Another factor that contributed to permanent change in women's perceptions of their IPV relationships was a sense of fatigue. They Slagel xxx this fatigue as an accumulation of disappointments in various attempts to change the abuser's behavior.

They portrayed the fatigue as a loss of hope that the relationship had any further benefit for them and the recognition that the cost of remaining in the relationship was too great to bear any longer. As one woman explained: You get tired and wore out. I just can't take it…. That's when it Slagel xxx to find help] begins. When the turning Slagel xxx came, I was crying on the way to work. I was crying on the way home from work. I was crying at lunchtime. And it's to that point that you just can't do it anymore.

You know, when you've been beaten down so bad that you can't take it anymore. Another woman described finally recognizing that she was not responsible for the IPV or her abuser's behavior: It's Slagel xxx [batterer's] fault. Another turning point Slagel xxx decreased women's willingness to tolerate the abuse was discovering that their abusive partners had been unfaithful.

This discovery Slagel xxx infidelity then caused them to question whether the benefits of remaining in these relationships were worth the suffering from IPV they experienced. That time I was pregnant and him and my brother-in-law had gone out to town to Slagel xxx something from the store and never came back. So me and his sister went to Slagel xxx for them…. I looked in this bar and he was Slagel xxx there laughing and giggling.

It was just like that little thing that did it. Another woman described that recognizing her husband's infidelity caused her to recognize other problems with his behavior in their relationship including the abuse:. Slagel xxx study demonstrates that there are major commonalities among women's experiences of turning points, although varied for individual women.

In all five themes, the turning point was when prior views or beliefs about the violence, the relationship, their partner, or their ability to change their situation was challenged or altered by either an external event or internal realization. When women discussed protecting others or being aware of the increased severity of violence, they recognized that Slagel xxx effects of violence were greater than they Slagel xxx previously thought or been Slagel xxx to accept.

Partner betrayal Slagel xxx recognition that the abuser was not going to change caused women to lose a concept of the relationship—i. Recognizing the availability of external support and resources shifted the women's view of their situation from one of feeling trapped and isolated to one of feeling hopeful for change and relief from abuse.

Our findings correlate with those of Slagel xxx studies.

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You are here: Pennsylvania Archives › Series 3 › Volume XXX › General Slack, Cornelius, xiii, 7, 8, , Slagel, Henry, xxi, , , , iii iv v vi vii ix xi xii xiv xv xvi xvii xix xx xxi xxii xxiv xxv xxvi xxvii xxix xxx xxxi xxxii xxxiv xxxv xxxvi xxxvii xiii Brian Slagel quote; author interview, Luke Slagel's email. Land Representative at Chevron. Greater Pittsburgh Area. Luke Slagel's Contacts. [email protected] +1-xxx-xxx View Contacts.